CHI 2002 Proceedings Table of Contents
Where Do Web Sites Come From? Capturing and Interacting with Design History
Scott Klemmer (UC Berkeley), Michael Thomsen (University of Aarhus), Ethan Phelps-Goodman (UC Berkeley), James Landay (UC Berkeley, EECS Department)
Describes a wall-scale, collaborative interface for capturing and visualizing design histories, and provides evidence of design process enhancement. Provides new opportunities for reasoning about the design of complex artifacts.
The Augurscope: A Mixed Reality Interface for Outdoors
Holger Schnädelbach, Boriana Koleva, Martin Flintham, Mike Fraser, Paul Chandler, Malcolm Foster, Prof Steve Benford, Chris Greenhalgh, Shahram Izadi, Tom Rodden (The University of Nottingham)
Describes the design of a mixed reality system for group outdoor use. Suggests how to design the physical form and content of such a system to accommodate outdoor environmental constraints.
Movement Model, Hits Distribution and Learning in Virtual Keyboarding
Shumin Zhai (IBM Almaden Research Center), Alison Sue (IBM - Almaden Research Center), Johnny Accot (IBM Almaden Research Center)
Revises the Fitts-digraph model of virtual keyboard performance, drawing on empirical data, and reports the effect of expanding-rehearsal training. Provides a stronger basis for virtual keyboard research.
Comparison of Two Touchpad-Based Methods for Numeric Entry
Poika Isokoski (University of Tampere), Mika Käki (University of Tampere)
Presents an improved clock-face based stroke interface for entering numbers with a touchpad, showing reduced error rates in a study. Offers a strategy for achieving more reliable touchpad-based numeric input.
Interacting At a Distance: Measuring the Performance of Laser Pointers and Other Devices
Brad A. Myers, Rishi Bhatnagar, Jeffrey Nichols, Choon Hong Peck, Dave Kong, Robert Miller, A. Chris Long (Carnegie Mellon University)
Presents findings from two studies of laser pointer interaction devices, comparing laser pointing with a mouse, SmartBoard and PDA. Provides data on laser pointer performance useful for future designs.
Messages Embedded in Gaze of Interface Agents - Impression Management with Agent's Gaze
Atsushi Fukayama, Takehiko Ohno, Naoki Mukawa, Minako Sawaki, Norihiro Hagita (NTT Communication Science Laboratories)
Presents a model of impressions formed by gaze patterns, testing its use in an interface agent. Suggests the feasibility of designing an interface agent's eye movements to produce appropriate impressions.
Leveraging the Asymmetric Sensitivity of Eye Contact for Videoconference
Milton Chen (Stanford University)
Presents findings concerning the asymmetric precision of perceiving eye contact, showing greater sensitivity to horizontal and upward displacements. Gives advice on optimum mounting position for videoconferencing cameras.
Acquisition of Expanding Targets
Ravin Balakrishnan (University of Toronto), Michael McGuffin (University of Toronto)
Presents findings from a study of selecting expanding targets, showing that performance is governed by final target size. Indicates that expanding targets can be used without sacrificing performance.
Quantitative Analysis of Scrolling Techniques
Ken Hinckley (Microsoft Research), Edward Cutrell (Microsoft Research), Steve Bathiche (Microsoft), Tim Muss (Microsoft)
Presents a new Fitts' Law evaluation method applicable to scrolling techniques, applying it to improving a wheel using a novel acceleration algorithm. Assists designers in evaluating and improving scrolling techniques.
More than Dotting the i's --- Foundations for Crossing-based Interfaces
Johnny Accot (IBM Almaden Research Center), Shumin Zhai (IBM Almaden Research Center)
Discovers that Fitts' Law can be extended to predict performance of a wider range of interactions including those based on crossings. Offers a quantitative basis for designing or improving crossing- and pointing-based interfaces.
A Case Study to Distill Structural Scaffolding Guidelines for Scaffolded Software Environments
Chris Quintana (University of Michigan), Joseph Krajcik (University of Michgan), Elliot Soloway (University of Michigan)
Presents guidelines for designers of learner-centered tools based on a case study of a scaffolded software environment. Can assist in developing effective scaffolded tools.
Notification for Shared Annotation of Digital Documents
AJ Brush (University of Washington and Microsoft), David Bargeron (Microsoft Research), Anoop Gupta (Microsoft Research), Jonathan Grudin (Microsoft Research)
Presents a design for enhancements, validated by a field study, to the notification capabilities of a large-scale shared annotation system. Indicates how designers and developers can improve organizational communication and coordination.
"I'd Be Overwhelmed, But It's Just One More Thing to Do:" Availability and Interruption in Research Management
Jim Hudson (Georgia Institute of Technology), Jim Christensen (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center), Wendy Kellogg (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center), Thomas Erickson (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center)
Presents findings, from a field study using wireless paging and interviews, on how managers spend their time and on attitudes towards interruption during various activities. Suggests implications for designing CSCW systems.
Comparing Voodoo Dolls and HOMER: Exploring the Importance of Feedback in Virtual Environments
Jeff Pierce (Carnegie Mellon University), Randy Pausch (Carnegie Mellon University)
Finds that Voodoo Dolls allow users to position and orient objects more accurately than HOMER in immersive 3D environments. Suggests a focus on improving feedback for 3D manipulation techniques.
SmartSkin: An Infrastructure for Freehand Manipulations on Interactive Surfaces
Jun Rekimoto (Sony CSL)
Presents a capacitive sensing technique for tracking multiple hands and fingers on interactive surfaces, illustrated in several new interaction techniques. Offers designers a simple, inexpensive and widely applicable input technique.
Creating Principal 3D Curves with Digital Tape Drawing
Gordon Kurtenbach (Alias | wavefront), Ravin Balakrishnan (University of Toronto), Tovi Grossman (Alias|wavefront), George Fitzmaurice (Alias|wavefront), Azam Khan (Alias|wavefront), Bill Buxton (Alias|wavefront)
Presents a system for creating non-planar 3D curves of automotive designs using 2D tape drawing. Provides new insights on inputting geometry on large-scale displays.
Adaptive Testing: Effects on User Performance
Eva Jettmar (Stanford University), Clifford Nass (Stanford University)
Finds that people with varying task confidence perform differently in response to the same perceived interface adaptations. Design and evaluation of adaptive interfaces can be informed by these findings.
Effects of Four Computer-mediated Communications Channels on Trust Development
Judith S. Olson (The University of Michigan), Nathan Bos (University of Michigan), Darren Gergle (Carnegie Mellon University), Gary M. Olson (University of Michigan), Zachary Wright (University of Michigan)
Finds that trust is delayed by computer-mediated communication, with audio and video communication performing better that text chat. Results useful to designers of CMC systems where trust development is important.
Trust withouttouch: Jumpstarting Long-distance Trust with Initial Social Activities
Judith S. Olson, Jun zheng, Nathan Bos, Gary M. Olson, Elizabeth Veinott (University of Michigan)
Finds that trust between remote teammates in computer-mediated communication is encouraged by meeting beforehand, social chat, or seeing a picture of each other. Encouraging these activities may improve CMC effectiveness.
Bonnie John (Carneige Mellon University), Alonso Vera (NASA Ames Research Center), Michael Matessa (NASA Ames Research Center), Michael Freed (NASA Ames Research Center, Roger Remington (NASA Ames Research Center)
Describes an implementation of CPM-GOMS in the Apex modeling platform that automates many steps in model development. Requires less modeling knowledge and saves interface designers time when conducting CPM-GOMS analyses.
Investigating Human-Computer Optimization
Stacey Scott, Neal Lesh, Gunnar Klau (Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratory)
Presents findings from experiments with an interactive optimization system, exploring ways of combining the strengths of humans and computers. Can inform future work on interactive optimization systems.
An Evaluation of a Multiple Interface Design Solution for Bloated Software
Joanna McGrenere (University of Toronto), Ronald Baecker (University of Toronto), Kellogg Booth (University of British Columbia)
Finds that a novel interface, allowing personalization by the user, increases sense of control and ability to navigate a heavily featured software system. Indicates how personalization can provide user benefits.
Introducing Instant Messaging and Chat in the Workplace
Mark Handel (University of Michigan), Jim Herbsleb (Lucent Technologies, Inc.), Dave Boyer (Avaya Communications), Tom Finholt (University of Michigan), Dave Atkins (Lucent Technologies)
Presents findings from introducing Instant Messaging into widely distributed teams, offering insights into critical mass issues and value perceptions of informal communications. Can contribute to the success of workplace IM.
Hubbub: A Sound-enhanced Mobile Instant Messenger that Supports Awareness and Opportunistic Interactions
Ellen Isaacs (AT&T Labs), Alan Walendowski (AT&T Labs), Dipti Ranganathan (AT&T Labs)
Describes a sound-enhanced system based on Instant Messaging, supporting presence awareness and opportunistic interactions among mobile, distributed groups. Can help mobile people stay connected in a lightweight, enjoyable way.
When Genres Collide: The Tensions of Instant Messaging Attributed
Amy Voida (Georgia Institute of Technology), Wendy Newstetter (Georgia Institute of Technology), Elizabeth Mynatt (Georgia Institute of Technology)
Presents an analysis of tensions in instant messaging use and suggests a design space, defined by communicative conventions. Can help designers understand tensions in new communications media.
Women Take a Wider View
Mary Czerwinski (Microsoft Research), Desney Tan (Carnegie Mellon University), George G. Robertson (Microsoft Research)
Presents findings concerning males' outperformance of females in 3D navigation tasks. Explains how large displays and wide fields of view can be employed to improve females' performance dramatically.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Spatial Memory in 2D and 3D Physical and Virtual Environments
Bruce McKenzie (University of Canterbury), Andy Cockburn (University of Canterbury)
Finds that performance of spatial memory recall tasks deteriorates as dimensionality increases from 2D to 3D. Improves our understanding of the usefulness of 3D representations for such tasks.
Learning Where to Look: Location Learning in Graphical User Interfaces
Brian Ehret (Sun Microsystems, Inc.)
Presents a cognitive model of learning the location of objects in a graphical user interface, based on eye-tracking research. Increases understanding of how users learn and interact with graphical interfaces.
SmartSkip: Consumer Level Browsing and Skipping of Digital Video Content
Steven Drucker (Microsoft Research), Asta Glatzer (Microsoft Research), Steven De Mar (Microsoft Research), Curtis Wong (Microsoft Research)
Presents a design for video browsing on consumer devices, shown by quantitative and qualitative evaluation to achieve slower performance than existing systems but greater user satisfaction. Suggests lines of further inquiry.
How Knowledge Workers Use the Web
Abigail Sellen (Hewlett-Packard Labs), Rachel Murphy (Hewlett-Packard Labs), Kate Shaw (Aston University)
Provides a framework to describe knowledge workers' Web activities, drawing on diary-study data. Applies the framework to showing how current Web technologies could be improved in the future.
Applying Patterns of Cooperative Interaction To Work (Re)Design: E-Government and Planning
David Martin (Lancaster University), Mark Rouncefield (Lancaster University), Ian Sommerville (Lancaster University)
Presents a method for using patterns of cooperative interaction, derived from ethnographies, for analysis and design. Addresses important issues for ethnography concerning generalisation, re-use and input to design.
Separating the Swarm: Categorization Methods for User Sessions on the Web
Ed H. Chi (Xerox PARC), Jeffrey Heer (Xerox PARC)
Presents several findings from a systematic evaluation of clustering methods for categorizing user sessions in Web usage logs. Offers recommendations on how to achieve higher clustering accuracy.
Popout Prism: Adding Perceptual Principles to Overview+Detail Document Interfaces
Allison Woodruff (Xerox PARC), Bongwon Suh (University of Maryland), Ruth Rosenholtz (Xerox PARC), Alyssa Glass (Xerox PARC)
Describes the design of an overview+detail document interface using improved navigation and highlighting to help users work with documents. Can inform the design of improved overview+detail document interfaces.
Keeping Things in Context: A Comparative Evaluation of Focus Plus Context Screens, Overviews, and Zooming
Patrick Baudisch (Xerox PARC), Nathaniel Good (Xerox PARC), Victoria Bellotti (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center), Pamela Schraedley (Xerox PARC)
Finds advantages, over other solutions, in a large-screen display with an embedded central high-resolution display region. For designers able to employ novel hardware solutions, offers significant user performance advantages.
Improving Focus Targeting in Interactive Fisheye Views
Carl Gutwin (University of Saskatchewan)
Describes an adaptive technique for improving focus-targeting in distortion-based visualizations, that flattens the view based on pointer speed. The technique can significantly reduce targeting times and targeting errors.
SCANMail: A Voicemail Interface that Makes Speech Browsable, Readable and Searchable
Steve Whittaker (AT&T), Julia Hirschberg (AT&T), Brian Amento (AT&T Labs - Research), Litza Stark (U. Delaware), Michiel Bacchiani (AT&T), Phil Isenhour (Virginia Tech), Larry Stead (AT&T), Gary Zamchick (AT&T), Aaron Rosenberg (AT&T)
Presents a novel interface technique for accessing speech data, involving transcripts generated by automatic speech recognition, and automatic extraction of critical information. Can help designers to achieve higher voicemail performance.
A Comparative Study of Speech in the Call Center: Natural Language Call Routing vs. Touch-Tone Menus
Bernhard Suhm, Josh Bers, Dan McCarthy, Barbara Freeman, David Getty, Katherine Godfrey, Patrick Peterson (BBN Technologies)
A call-center field study finds that callers prefer speech-enabled call routing to standard touch-tone menus. Suggests how service providers can reduce agent handling time and provide a better service to callers.
Gestural and Audio Metaphors as a Means of Control for Mobile Devices
Antti Pirhonen (University of Jyvaskyla), Christopher Holguin (University of Glasgow), Dr Stephen Brewster (University of Glasgow)
Describes gesture and non-speech audio interaction techniques, and their use in a mobile PDA application. The techniques can enable mobile applications to be used on the move without visual attention.
Physical Programming: Designing Tools for Children to Create Physical Interactive Environments
Allison Druin, Jaime Montemayor, Allison Farber, Sante Simms, Wayne Churaman, Allison DÕAmour (University of Maryland)
Case study describing development of a physical environment that allows young children to program stories. Can assist designers in understanding how to involve users, especially in formative design stages.
A Visual Language for Sketching Large and Complex Interactive Designs
James Lin (UC Berkeley), Michael Thomsen (University of Aarhus), James Landay (UC Berkeley, EECS Department)
Presents a visual language for informally describing advanced interactive behavior in a sketching environment. Designers with no programming knowledge can quickly prototype sophisticated interaction without focusing on inappropriate detail.
Specifying Preferences Based On User History
Loren Terveen (AT&T Labs - Research), Jessica McMackin (AT&T Labs - Research), Brian Amento (AT&T Labs - Research), Will Hill (AT&T Labs - Research)
Presents a history-based graphical technique for setting user preferences, and describes implementations on desktop and mobile platforms. Offers a basis for providing improved support to user preference setting.
Observed Behavior and Perceived Value of Authors in Usenet Newsgroups: Bridging the Gap
Andrew Fiore (Cornell University), Scott LeeTiernan (University of Washington), Marc Smith (Microsoft Research)
Identifies metrics linking newsgroup authors' posting behavior with readers' perceptions of message value. Suggests searching, sorting and filtering strategies for reducing noise in online social spaces.
Diffusing Information in Organizational Settings: Learning from Experience
Dave Snowdon, Antonietta Grasso (Xerox Research Centre Europe)
Describes a large-screen recommender system with additional user interfaces to accommodate different user categories, and presents informal experiences of usage. Offers observations for improvements in future large-screen and recommender systems.
A Tangible Interface for Organizing Information Using a Grid
Robert Jacob (Tufts University & MIT Media Lab), Hiroshi Ishii (MIT Media Lab), Gian Pangaro (MIT Media Lab), James Patten (MIT Media Lab)
Presents a new platform for grid-based tangible interaction for organizing data, and an experimental study of costs and benefits. Indicates that tangible interaction can offer performance advantages over other solutions.
Cognitive Cubes: A Tangible User Interface For Cognitive Assessment
Benjamin Watson (Northwestern University), Ehud Sharlin (University of Alberta), Yoshifumi Kitamura (Osaka University), Yuichi Itoh (Osaka University), Steve Sutphen (University of Alberta), Lili Liu (University of Alberta)
Describes a novel system and tangible user interface for 3D spatial cognitive assessment, whose reliability and sensitivity are confirmed by testing. Increases consistency, sensitivity, flexibility and control of cognitive assessment.
Illuminating Clay: a 3-Dimensional Tangible Interface for Landscape Analysis
Ben Piper (Tangible Media Group, MIT Media Lab), Carlo Ratti (Tangible Media Group, MIT Media Lab), Hiroshi Ishii (MIT Media Lab)
Describes an interface enabling real-time projection of computational analysis results onto a laser-scanned clay elevation model that is physically modifiable in real-time. Offers techniques and advantages for interactive analysis of landscape models.
Designing Online Banner Advertisements: Should We Animate?
Michelle Bayles (Software Usability Research Laboratory)
Presents findings showing that animation does not enhance recall or recognition of online banner advertisements. Helps advertisers and website designers reconsider the effectiveness of animation in banner ad design
Statistical Profiles of Highly-Rated Web Site Interfaces
Marti Hearst (University of California, Berkeley), Melody Ivory (UC Berkeley)
Makes advances in the automated assessment of web site design quality by creating statistical profiles of highly-rated sites. Provides a basis for developing tools to help build high-quality websites.
HutchWorld: Clinical Study of Computer-mediated Social Support for Cancer Patients and Their Caregivers
Shelly Farnham (Microsoft Research), Cheng Lili (Microsoft), Linda Stone (Microsoft), Karen Syrjala (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center), Ann Marie Clark (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center), Melora Zaner-Godsey (Microsoft), Janet Abrams (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center), Christopher Hibbeln (Microsoft)
A study of online support to cancer patients finds that a virtual world had limited success, but Internet access promoted wellbeing. Suggests lines for further investigation of patient online support systems.
Design as a Minority Discipline in a Software Company: Toward Requirements for a Community of Practice
Michael Muller (Lotus Development Corporation), Kenneth Carey (IBM Research)
Presents findings from a work practice study of user interface designers in a software company, contrasting them with published reports. Can inform the design of support systems for communities of designers.
Designing for Improved Social Responsibility, User Participation and Content in On-Line Communities
Sean Kelly (Microsoft Corporation), Christopher Sung (eTonal media, inc.)
Reports on a case study of two online interest-based communities. Offers design techniques that can be used to encourage active participation and responsible behavior in an online community.
Allan MacLean, Peter Tolmie, James Pycock, Tim Diggins, Alain Karsenty (Xerox Research Centre Europe)
Presents several ethnomethodological analyses of domestic routines and explores implications for emerging ubiquitous computing technologies. Suggests focusing on augmenting user activities rather than artefacts when designing for 'invisibility in use.'
Comparing Paper and Tangible, Multimodal Tools
David McGee (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory), Philip Cohen (OGI), R. Matthews Wesson (OGI), Sheilah Horman (OGI)
Finds that an augmented-paper multimodal user interface can be robust to failure and as easy to use as paper. Will assist designers in building more effective tangible user interfaces.
Making Sense of Sensing Systems: Five Questions for Designers and Researchers
Victoria Bellotti (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center), Maribeth Back (Xerox PARC), W. Keith Edwards (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center), Rebecca E. Grinter (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center), Austin Henderson (Rivendel Consulting & Design, Inc.), Cristina Lopes (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center)
Raises five design questions regarding the design of sensing-based interfaces, based on issues drawn from analyses of human-human communication. Can help guide the design of future sensing user interfaces.
Polyarchy Visualization: Visualizing Multiple Intersecting Hierarchies
George G. Robertson (Microsoft Research), Kim Cameron (Microsoft), Mary Czerwinski (Microsoft Research), Daniel Robbins (Microsoft Research)
Describes a system, and its iterative design, for visualizing information structures composed of multiple intersecting hierarchies. Offers an efficient, visually descriptive way to view relationships among items in multiple databases.
Sotto Voce: Exploring the Interplay of Conversation and Mobile Audio Spaces
Paul M. Aoki (Xerox PARC), Rebecca E. Grinter (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center), Amy Hurst (Georgia Institute of Technology), James Thornton (Xerox PARC), Allison Woodruff (Xerox PARC), Margaret Szymanski (Xerox PARC)
Describes the design of an electronic guidebook for visitors that supports technologically mediated audio eavesdropping, leading to improved direct social interaction. Assists design of guidebooks that facilitate such interaction.
Age-old Practices in the 'New World': A Study of Gift-giving Between Teenage Mobile Phone Users
Alex Taylor (Digital World Research Centre), Richard Harper (Digital World Research Centre)
Presents findings from an ethnographic study of teenage mobile phone users. Benefits include new insights into mobile phone use as gift-giving, and an example showing naturalistic data informing design.
Finding Others Online: Reputation Systems For Social Online Spaces
Carlos Jensen (College of Computing), John Davis (Microsoft Research), Shelly Farnham (Microsoft Research)
Finds that users seeking online partners for social interaction value two types of reputation information most highly, and value is context-dependent. Can help design services that more effectively connect users with partners.
Groupware Walkthrough: Adding Context to Groupware Usability Evaluation
Carl Gutwin (University of Saskatchewan), David Pinelle (University of Saskatchewan)
Extends the Cognitive Walkthrough method to group situations by treating individual and collaborative tasks separately. Presents practitioners with a clear method for evaluating groupware usability.
Cognitive Walkthrough for the Web
Marilyn Hughes Blackmon (University of Colorado), Peter G. Polson (ICS, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder), Muneo Kitajima (National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology), Clayton Lewis (ICS, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder)
Presents a pragmatic, theory based usability inspection method that predicts users' success rates when tracking information scent to accomplish goals. Helps web developers repair problems with heading/link label texts.
A Survey of User-Centered Design Practice
Karel Vredenburg (IBM), Ji-Ye Mao (University of Waterloo), Paul Smith (IBM), Tom Carey (University of Waterloo)
Reports findings from a survey of experienced UCD practitioners, covering methods used, their effectiveness, application tradeoffs, etc. Offers insights into UCD marketing and the need for improved cost/benefit measurement.